Concerned health professionals of New York release fracking compendium

The Concerned Health Professionals of New York just released a compendium that compiles a significant body of scientific, medical and journalistic findings that highlight the experienced health risks associated with the process of Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction.

CHPNY

One of the most thorough reports of its kind, the compendium draws upon scientific evidence and experience from across the globe, including USA, Canada and Australia, where Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction has been most predominant, drawing upon information provided by medical journals such as The Lancet, the British Medical Journal and the Medical Journal of Australia.

Topics covered by the compendium include:

  • Air Contamination
  • Water Contamination
  • Engineering Problems
  • Radioactive releases
  • Occupational Health and Safety Hazards
  • Noise pollution, light pollution and stress
  • Earthquakes and Seismic Activity
  • Abandoned wells
  • Flood risks
  • Threats to Agriculture and soil quality
  • Threats to the Climate
  • Inaccurate job claims, increased crime
  • Inflated oil and gas reserves
  • Medical and scientific calls for more study

A compilation of studies and findings from around the globe, the compendium provides irrefutable evidence of the risks, harms, and associated negative trends demonstrated by the process of Unconventional Shale Gas Extraction, a process earmarked for County Fermanagh.

To read the compendium in full, click here.

NFU (Canada) calls for fracking moratorium

The National Farmers Union of Canada has called for a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing, concluding that the process poses a danger to water, food and farmland.

“Many farmers in my area who either have direct experience with the destructive nature of hydro-fracking technology on their water wells, or who have neighbours who have been affected have come to me with their concerns” says Jan Slomp, Rimbey area dairy farmer and Region 7 (Alberta) Coordinator for the National Farmers Union (NFU). “We are in the heart of Alberta’s oil and gas country where our ability to produce good, wholesome food is at risk of being compromised by the widespread, virtually unregulated use of this dangerous process.”

At NFU Region 7’s recent public meeting dozens of concerned farm families heard how their neighbours, the Campbell family from Crestomere, Alberta, had their water well contaminated by highly toxic compounds, which they clearly linked to the fracking of a nearby oil and gas well. Several other attendees then brought forward their stories of losing water wells to fracking near their own farms. “Not many of these stories get made public because the oil and gas companies usually force farmers to sign confidentiality agreements in return for replacement of their water wells” said Slomp.

Iain Aitken, an Alberta cattle rancher and local NFU member observed, “Farmers across Canada largely depend on ground water aquifers for both domestic use and livestock production. The quality of ground water is critical to raising high quality food. Unfortunately in the experience of too many Alberta farmers and ranchers hydraulic fracturing has been associated with water well contamination and damage. That is why our organization is calling for a moratorium on this technique until these problems can be addressed.”

Jan Slomp concluded “The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers have really acknowledged there are problems with fracking by releasing several useful suggestions for guidelines to prevent further problems. However these voluntary guidelines are no substitute for strong regulations enforced by an impartial government body. That is what is needed before we can support any resumption of fracking.”

The NFU represents thousands of family farms across Canada. At its 2011 annual convention members passed a landmark resolution calling for a moratorium on the use of hydraulic fracturing of sub-surface oil and gas formations.

Gasbagging

There’s been quite a flurry in the local media this week over Tamboran’s much-trailed ‘announcement’. In fact the press release, written by the PR giants Weber Shandwick (specialisms include ‘baby-boomer marketing’ and product placement), contained a lot more fluff than substance and several of the industry’s hoarier old tricks.

State the obvious

“Energy company Tamboran Resources Pty Ltd (“Tamboran”) is pleased to announce that initial studies have confirmed that a substantial natural gas field is present in southwest County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland.”

Even my dog knows this. The important question for Tamboran is ‘will they be able to extract and sell it at a rate which would make them enormous profits?’ The important question for the rest of us is ‘what effect would this industrial process have on our economy, environment and future?’

 

Think of a number …

“A gas exploration project for Northern Ireland could create 600 full time jobs, up to 2,400 indirect jobs”

No one knows where the 600 figure comes from; as the Green Party point out, Tamboran has previously estimated 800 for the whole of Ireland while according to TV3, the (same?) 600 jobs are going to be in Country Leitrim. Could it possibly be a figure plucked from the air, big enough to offer hope to the desperate while small enough to still sound plausible? 2,400 is another suspiciously exact number. Is there perhaps some list of economic pseudo-statistics that states that every direct job involves four indirect ones? (More or less, we discover later, from Domhnall Ó Cobhthaigh’s analysis.) In any case, the magic words ‘could’ and ‘up to’ make the whole exercise pretty meaningless – ‘up to 2,400 jobs’ could mean three as easily as two thousand. Contrary to some of the excited headlines, there are no promises here.

What jobs there might be; and we realise that if the fracking goes ahead then someone will be paid for doing something, are equally vague. Full time is not, of course, the same thing as permanent, and we suspect that many of these will be contracts to dig a hole or drive a lorry. If you employ someone for a week three times a year over a ten year period is that one job or thirty? In neither case is it a lot of help. Meanwhile the few plum jobs; mining engineers and the like, will almost certainly go to people brought in from the gas industry in North America.

The numbers that of course aren’t mentioned are the jobs and small businesses that will be threatened by fracking. The twin poles of our county’s economy are farming, specifically food production, and tourism, particularly eco-tourism. Both of these depend absolutely upon the perception of Fermanagh as clean, safe and unspoiled. We can’t afford to gamble with that.

 

Compare like with unlike

“and deliver natural gas energy security for the next 50 years.”

This is later explained as the

“[p]otential for ultimate production of up to 2.2 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of shale gas. This equates to 50 years of the current daily consumption of gas in Northern Ireland;”

We don’t, of course, expect either Tamboran or Weber Shandwick to know it, but in Fermanagh, as in much of Northern Ireland, we don’t consume any mains gas at all. Fifty times hardly anything is, er, not very much. It’s a bit like asking an old lady how much lager she drinks, multiplying it by fifty and presenting her with a six-pack, saying that should deliver her liquid requirements for the next 50 years.

 

Think of a bigger number

“The company, which proposes to invest £6 billion in Northern Ireland, was commenting following completion of the first part of its analysis to determine the feasibility of shale gas exploration in Northern Ireland. Tamboran’s technical team of over 20 professionals have been involved in substantial natural projects worldwide and have very high confidence that they can commercially develop this project in Northern Ireland. The full analysis will be published by the end of this year.”

£6 billion may well be an amount of money Tamboran are hoping to obtain for this project from shareholders and banks following their planned flotation on the Australian stock market this year. That’s not quite the same thing as investing in Northern Ireland in the sense that most of us would understand.

 

Repeat it

“Tamboran, who last year was granted an Exploration Licence by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, is focusing its Northern Ireland operations in the southwest area of County Fermanagh. The Company has been granted a Licensing Option in an adjacent area in the Republic of Ireland where it is focusing in north County Leitrim.

The north-west region of Ireland is the only part of the island which is not currently connected to the gas network.

Outlining its initial analysis, which was based on its own and other recent studies, Tamboran identified a range of economic and energy benefits for Northern Ireland from the project, including:

§ Potential for ultimate production of up to 2.2 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of shale gas. This equates to 50 years of the current daily consumption of gas in Northern Ireland;

§ Full natural gas security of supply in Northern Ireland for at least 20 years and a substantial reduction in imports for over 30 years leading to removal of Northern Ireland’s 100% dependency on imported gas;

§ Excess gas supply at peak production, enabling Northern Ireland to become a significant net exporter of natural gas;

§ The creation of 600 direct jobs and an estimated 2,400 indirect jobs in County Fermanagh;

§ Tax revenues of up to £6.9 billion (including royalties, corporation tax, Vat, employment taxes and exploration tax); and”

Yes, that £6 billion had a nice ring about it, didn’t it? Well worth using again, of course with the safety precaution of ‘up to’. There’s no mention of what period this is supposed to cover – if it’s over the fifty plus years they’ve referred to in other contexts then it doesn’t sound quite so exciting. What is certain is that for any of this money to come to the UK government (and it would not of course, be earmarked for Northern Ireland) Tamboran would have to be making pretty substantial profits out of a resource which is supposed to belong to the people of this country.

And somehow, quite legally of course, companies that make enormous profits don’t always end up paying quite as much tax as the initial figures would suggest. Barclays Bank, for example, made profits in 2009 of £11.6 billion. Incredibly, their tax bill, which at a rate of 22% would have been over £2.5bn, came out as a mere £113m – around 1 per cent. It would, we think, be very unwise for any country or region to depend on getting tax revenue from a foreign-owned company, especially when that company’s activities threaten the balance sheets of local businesses.

 

try a sweetener

“§ A community investment fund directed entirely within County Fermanagh, estimated to lead to additional local benefits in excess of £2 million per year once the project reaches expected commerciality in 2015.”

Out of those hoped-for profits, £2 million would of course be peanuts. But then, peanuts are a useful thing to fling around when you want to distract the monkeys from what you’re doing to their tree. Again, nothing is promised, but we can expect to see some small boys in glossy Tamboran football shirts for a great photo-opportunity.

 

quote yourself as an authority

“Describing the project as ‘an energy and economic game changer for Northern Ireland’, Richard Moorman, Chief Executive of Tamboran said:

‘Our initial analysis suggests very substantial shale gas reserves in the southwest Fermanagh area. Allowing for even modest rates of recovery, the energy and economic benefits would be tremendous.’

‘Security of energy supply is a primary concern for all governments. Our analysis indicates that the island of Ireland is in the fortunate position to have substantial gas reserves under its feet. In southwest Fermanagh alone, we believe that there is up to 50 years of the present daily gas consumption of Northern Ireland. Realising these reserves would secure gas supply for decades, protect consumers and businesses from market uncertainty and negate the risks associated with being over dependent on unpredictable external supplies. County Fermanagh would be able to attract additional businesses that would benefit directly from a secure local natural gas supply.'”

As we’ve pointed out, we have no gas infrastructure here, and there is no reason to think that this gas would be used within Northern Ireland or indeed the Republic, rather than being exported. ‘Market uncertainty’ is about price rather than supply, and Tamboran’s profits will depend upon the price being as high as possible.

The real problem with fossil fuels, as every primary schoolchild, though oddly not Richard Moorman, realises, is that they are creating devastating levels of climate change which will alter all of our lives for the worse within just a few short years. Shale gas, because of the crude nature of the extraction process and the amount of gas which is consequently wasted, is at least as bad if not worse than coal in this respect. If we really care about our children’s future we will take steps to switch to the renewable energies in which Northern Ireland is naturally and richly endowed, rather than wasting time and worse on unecessary hydraulic fracturing.

 

quote a celebrity – or even better, two

“Natural gas from shale has made a substantial positive impact in North America already. In his State of the Union address on the 25th of January, US President Barack Obama stated: “We have a supply of natural gas that can last America nearly one hundred years, and my Administration will take every possible action to safely develop this energy. Experts believe this will support more than 600,000 jobs by the end of the decade. And I’m requiring all companies that drill for gas on public lands to disclose the chemicals they use. America will develop this resource without putting the health and safety of our citizens at risk.”

President Obama’s comments are similar to statements by former US President Bill Clinton in his recently published book “Back to Work: Why we need smart government for a strong economy”, in which he wrote: “With proper care, I think we can extract the gas. We need it, and it can make us both more energy independent and contribute to job creation and growth.”

Somehow other parts of President Obama’s address, the bits about renewable energy, wind turbines, and energy efficiency, didn’t get quoted, along with the bits condemning lax regulation, overpaid executives and gambles that lead to people losing their jobs. But we know all about the problems that the fracking industry has created in America and how impossible it has been for those charged with protecting health and the environment to do anything about it. Richard Moorman has told us many times that the American experience has nothing to do with the situation in Ireland, which makes it rather odd that his PR people are now wheeling out not one but two US presidents. Did they try, and fail, to find a respected Irish or European politician who would support their case?

 

repeat yourself

“Mr Moorman further stated ‘Our projections of the economic gains for Northern Ireland from this proposed £6 billion investment includes up to £6.9 billion in tax revenues over the lifetime of the project, 600 full-time, long-term direct jobs by 2025 (with up to 2,400 indirect jobs), for a total of about 14,000 direct person-years of employment through to the year 2050. Tamboran expects to provide comprehensive and continuous training to all of its local employees to ensure they can commercially succeed within Tamboran.'”

We get some more figures here, along with the headline ones, but they don’t quite seem to add up. Between now and 2050 is 38 years and 14,000 ‘person-years of employment’ divided by 38 gives 368, not 600. As for ‘comprehensive and continuous training’, isn’t that what burger-flippers get at McDonald’s?

As Tamboran know, the prospect of jobs is the only real aspect of their plans which is likely to appeal to local people. It’s therefore in their interests to play it up as much as possible. Equally, if we care about the future of our young people, and hope that they will be able to stay in Fermanagh and raise their own families here, we need to look carefully at what is, and what isn’t likely to happen. Domhnall Ó Cobhthaigh has done just this on his excellent blog at http://networkedblogs.com/tvnua which gives a full analysis of the figures used by Tamboran in this statement. On the question of jobs, he says;

“Tamboran say that 600 full-time and long-term jobs will be created if this proceeds. I fail to see how that could be true.

Most jobs created in this industry are associated with building the pads and then with the actual fracking process itself. Once a well is fracked it continues to release methane over many months until it has to be refracked.

Once a well has been fracked the only thing that requires employment is watching that the flow continues from all the wells in the field (one person could almost do this with the appropriate equipment) and with security. 600 full time jobs? It doesn’t sound realistic.

So the direct jobs created sounds like a massive over-estimate. But there’s even worse. The construction phase and development of 150 4-acre pads in this region will destroy the local tourism industry. The threat of benzene-infused waste water escaping into the local water courses will probably kill off any growth in agriculture and organic food and drink production in this area will just disappear as a result. Who wants to drink beer brewed in a place where the water is potentially contaminated by fracking waste-water? Fishing in Lough Melvin and Lough MacNean are potentially finished not to mention the impact of the water demand associated with each of these wells (6 to 8 million gallons of water per well and there could be up to 16 each pad). The environmental impact on agriculture and tourism will be devastating.

These happen to be the only industries in West Fermanagh and North Leitrim so even if Tamboran does create 600 full-time jobs for 25 years it will be at the cost of hundreds of jobs lost in tourism and in agriculture.”

 

 

make a virtue out of necessity

“Tamboran is proceeding with its agreed work programme of analysis, required under its existing licences, and will publish an update later this year. Additionally, the company will undertake a comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment which will include a 12 month baseline study of all aspects of the environment, including soil, groundwater, air quality, noise levels, and seismic activity. The company will publish these findings upon completion in early 2013 and will then outline its intentions as to how it will request permission to proceed to the next stage of the licensing and planning processes.

Concluding, Mr Moorman said ‘In recent months we have met with and listened to a wide range of stakeholders at community, business, regulatory and political levels. We will continue with this approach, outlining the reality of our proposal while acknowledging that a project of this scale will attract requests for clarity and support.’

‘Tamboran will not utilise any chemicals in its hydraulic fracturing process in Northern Ireland, and we will be bringing together the best technologies developed worldwide into this one project to ensure the safe and responsible development of a tremendous resource for Northern Ireland.’

‘We are undertaking a full Environmental Impact Assessment, which will set out the specific criteria under which the company must safely and responsibly conduct its operations to the very highest standards.’

‘Additionally, we will establish a substantial community investment fund to ensure all benefits are shared at local as well as national levels. We consider it essential to deliver a direct benefit for local residents. Tamboran undertakes to operate safely and our commitment to openness and transparency will remain every step of the way.’

International studies worldwide have shown that natural gas has low carbon content relative to other fossil fuels, which would also allow it to play a significant role in reducing CO2 emissions, acting as a bridge to a low-carbon future (see editors’ notes).

Tamboran invites all stakeholders, especially local residents, to engage with the company and work closely with us to ensure that the project is conducted responsibly to meet the essential economic needs of the community and Northern Ireland.”

The company is legally obliged to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment: what is significant is not that it will do it, but how independent, complete and reliable it will be. Past experience sadly doesn’t promise much, but we can hope.

The point about chemicals continues to be unclear. It has been pointed out by experts that no hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction has been carried out worldwide without using chemicals in the fracking fluid – without them the sand would not remain suspended in the liquid and the equipment would rapidly deteriorate. Tamboran has not explained how it proposes to overcome these basic obstacles. It is also the case that not all the toxic chemicals are strictly within the ‘hydraulic fracturing process’ – many are contained within drilling muds, engine exhausts etc or are brought up from deep underground with the flowback waste. Finally, there is no extension of this pledge (itself not of course legally binding) to the activities of any subcontractor or subsequent purchaser of the licence.

Sadly, there is no evidence that Tamboran has listened to the concerns of local people or done anything tangible to address the issues which they raise. Indeed, on TV3 this week, the company’s Tony Bazley accused people like us who ask questions about their plans of trying to ‘intimidate the local communities’. It is difficult to see how, given such an attitude, local residents are able to engage with the company in any other way than mindlessly agreeing with everything it says. However, we will continue, in our quiet way, to ask the difficult questions, share the information which we have and speak out on behalf of the most vulnerable in our environment and society.

 

p.s. The ‘editor’s notes’ re gas and climate change refer to a study by Massachusetts Institute of Technology which receives significant donations from the gas industry. Their studies on this issue are partially funded by the American Clean Skies Foundation, formed by the billionaire CEO of Chesapeake Energy, the second largest producer of natural gas in the US. Other academic reports have come to different conclusions.

 

 

 

Fuelling Ireland’s public health problems

Fuelling Ireland’s public health problems — Irish Medical Times. (click on link to read the article in full)

“[F]ive issues can be identified that raise concerns about the impact of fracking on health.   Firstly, the process of fracking uses a wide variety of chemicals,  including friction reducers, surfactants, gelling agents, scale inhibitors, acids, corrosion inhibitors, antibacterial agents and clay stabilisers. Additional naturally occurring heavy metals and radioactive materials may also be mobilised from the rock during its fracture, including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, thorium and uranium and these may also interact with the chemicals in the fluid.

In addition, the possibility of accidental release of chemicals and gases through fire, vandalism, or spills and leaks from poor practices is an ongoing risk.

Toxic mud and fluid by-products from the drilling and fracking, as well as spills of oil and gas wastes, are not uncommon. The health impact of such chemicals depends on factors such as the toxicity, dose, route and duration of exposure, and the vulnerability of the people being affected…

Secondly, air may also be contaminated by volatile chemicals released during drilling (combustion from machinery and transport) and from other operations, during methane separation or by evaporation from holding ponds. Methane gas is also explosive….

Thirdly, fracking requires substantial amounts of water, 1.5 million gallons per well …  A shortage of water would pose considerable threats to health and well-being of people living in the area. The company proposes using some of the waste water for fracking. However, this will very possibly involve the burning off some of the toxic residues leading to additional air pollution, as well as storage difficulties.

Fourthly, the soil may be contaminated by drilling sludge, which may contain drilling mud, hydrocarbons, radioactive material and heavy metals. This would have serious consequences for grasslands used for leisure or agriculture purposes. The consumption of meat and or milk from animals grazing on such land would also give rise for concern.

Finally, the British Geological Survey states that it is well established that fluid injections can cause small earthquakes and fracking has been associated with two small quakes near Blackpool.

It is widely recognised that we need to reduce our emissions of greenhouse gasses. The adoption of fracking is a step away from a solution to the problem of climate change. We must leave any remnants of fossil fuel in the ground, instead of seeking ever more expensive and environmentally destructive methods of extracting them. … In the interests of public health, we must not allow fracking in Ireland.

Any tragedy is upsetting; an avoidable tragedy is all the more so.”

(Dr. Elizabeth Cullen)

 

Farmers express fracking fears

Our recent Fracking awareness meetings in Florencecourt and Cashel have been well attended by local people including many from the farming community. There was also a good turnout of fishermen at the Cashel meeting.

Farmers were particularly concerned about the potential impact of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on the local agri-food industry. These small businesses are dependent on quality production to maintain their position in this niche market.   The slightest suggestion of contamination of beef or milk could mean financial ruin.  Speaking after the meeting Dr Carroll O’Dolan, spokesperson for FFAN, noted that where the farming community are struggling to survive in the current economic climate “even the perception of contamination could destroy the local agri-food industry”. At the end of the Cashel meeting committee members of the Garrison-Lough Melvin Anglers Association spoke of their concerns about fracking and its impact on the fishing on the famous waters of Lough Melvin.

 

Farmers who had diversified into tourism were equally anxious.  They spoke of huge personal and public investments in Fermanagh’s tourism industry.  This investment has created a brand recognised both nationally and internationally – ‘Fermanagh welcomes you naturally’.  But will tourists still want to come here if Fermanagh loses its green and clean image to become one of concrete, heavy industry and heavy traffic? If there is a long term risk of water contamination and/or toxic chemicals getting into the food chain how will our fishing and Lakelands fare?  There is a real concern that secure jobs in Fermanagh’s tourism industry could be under threat if ‘fracking’ is allowed to go ahead to be replaced by short term “potential” jobs.

Looking ahead, many were concerned about what happens when the extraction process is over.  “Industrialised land” covered with concrete and contaminated with chemicals both above & below ground, cannot be farmed; indeed the landowners may find themselves responsible for difficult and expensive clean-up operations.

Other farmers were downright angry; if they are strictly regulated and penalised if they deviate from DARD & DOE regulations, then why were four exploration licenses for shale gas and oil extraction issued in Northern Ireland with very little consideration as to the impacts on health, the environment, the rural way of life and no public consultation?

Fracking for unconventional gas and oil is a relatively new technology which is causing much controversy around the world and has been banned or put on hold in many regions.  It is significantly different from fracking for conventional gas & oil reserves, which has been used for the last sixty years. The British Geological Survey has concluded that fracking was the likely cause of the recent earthquakes near Blackpool, and that these earthquakes were between 10-100 times stronger than the usual low-level seismic activity that can normally occur in that area. A recent poll in the Guardian newspaper showed that 68.3% of respondents were opposed to fracking in the UK.

Closing the meeting in Florencecourt Dr O’Dolan said “We don’t know the long term impact that fracking will have on our health and the environment thus the precautionary principle should apply. The Governments should wait for the outcome of the very detailed studies being carried out in the USA & Europe, and both due for release in 2014. The ‘Sure we’ll see how it goes, if it turns out bad we’ll stop’ attitude is too dangerous.”

Enniskillen meeting report

 There were people standing around the edges of the room, in the hallway and spilling out into the car park for Dr Aedin McLoughlin’s presentation at the Clinton Centre on Wednesday 28th September. Dr McLoughlin presented the case for and against shale gas extraction, covering issues including health, quality of life and the effects on the local economy. The aim of the evening was to share information in order to help Fermanagh residents to make an informed decision as whether this gas extraction is welcome in their county. Mr Tom Noble, former Principal of the Erne Integrated College, very ably chaired the meeting, allowing those in attendance to ask questions and share concerns. He ensured that opinions both for and against the process were aired in a respectful manner. Dr Carroll O’Dolan of Florencecourt and Marius Leonard of the Corralea Activity Centre were also on the panel to answer queries.

Some local elected representatives were in the audience and they were called upon by others to “get off the fence” and make their position on the controversial fracking process known. Some were ready to state their views while others said that they would make up their minds when they felt they had all the necessary facts. This was welcomed by other residents, although the urgency of the issue was also emphasised.

The farming community raised issues particularly relevant to them. While leasing their land to the gas exploration companies may seem a lucrative opportunity for farmers, some expressed concerns about the potentially lethal waste that would be left behind and their ultimate responsibility for clearing it. It was also noted with anxiety that the chemical benzene, a petroleum product  found in the flowback fluid coming up from the shale layer, could have a disastrous effect on the local agri-food industry if a leakage occurred. There was also much concern about the fact that planning permission was not required for the laying of gas pipes and that they could be run through any property without the owners’ permission.

Some of the landowners in attendance were very angry that any gas which might be extracted would almost certainly be exported and that very little if any would be used locally, meaning that the local economy would not benefit from lower fuel prices.

Dr O’Dolan was very concerned about the health implications of the process. The precise effects on human and animal health are very difficult to quantify, given that baseline studies are not generally carried out prior to exploration, but it has certainly not been shown that the procedure is safe for people, livestock or wildlife. He suggested we should wait until technology developed further and potential risks were mimimised. After all the gas, if left in the shale layer, is not going anywhere!

The audience was reminded that this process continues to be extremely controversial worldwide, that it is banned in many countries and states, and that pending law suits and protests are ongoing in countries such as the US and Australia where its use is more widespread. In England shale gas extraction has also caused much controversy with recent small earthquakes in Lancashire having been associated with the fracking process in the area. If this were to happen in Fermanagh, people were left to imagine, for example, the impact on the Marble Arch Caves, one of the county’s most important tourist attractions.

The meeting ended with the chairperson reminding those in attendance that the organisers – Fermanagh Fracking Awareness Network – were not asking people to say a blanket “no” to shale gas extraction; rather, that they should become informed about the process before they say “yes”.

Further information meetings will be held in Newtownbutler on 4th October and Florencecourt on 26th October. Meetings are also being planned for Derrygonnelly, Garrison and Belleek.